Pet Hedgehogs can Seriously Damage your Health

Exotic pets and exotic diseases

Photo by michelleness via Flickr

Each year literally hundreds of millions of legally imported exotic pets flood into the United States and Europe. Many of these animals can be happily hopping, swimming or crawling in the wild in South America, Asia or Africa one day, and find themselves in a cage in some child’s bedroom in say, Ohio, less than a week later. Very often many of these pets are not subject to quarantine or any form of screening and come straight from the bush into our homes. Unfortunately many exotic pet owners are completely ignorant of the risks these animals may pose to their health.

Zoonotic Diseases

A zoonotic disease is one that can jump from animals to humans.  The latest “Swine Flu” outbreak is very good example of a zoonotic disease. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention say that these types of diseases account for 75% of all emerging infectious threats. Here is just a small sample of the diseases that exotic pets have passed or could pass on to humans, i.e. your family.

  • Cowpox - In a recent case in France four people were infected by cowpox after being scratched by pet rats that were all bought from the same pet store. In three of the cases surgery was required to treat the disease.(1)
  • Salmonella – The majority of Salmonella infections originate from contaminated food. However it is estimated that 5 % of infections are linked to pets. It is believed that around 90% of reptiles, especially iguanas and turtles, carry Salmonella. The CDC estimates that 70,000 people in the USA are infected with Salmonella by pet reptiles every year. Between 2003 and 2004 many people in ten states all over the USA were infected with a drug-resistant form of the disease which was subsequently linked to pet hamsters and other rodents. (2)
  • In 1994 African Pygmy Hedgehogs were linked to a rare form of Salmonella (S. tilene), when a 10 month old girl became the first human to be documented with this serotype in the USA. The girl’s family kept a breeding herd of 80 hedgehogs and significantly she had not been in physical contact with them herself, only with a family member who had handled them. The same serotype was later diagnosed in 10 hedgehog owners in Canada. (3)
  • Psittacosis – According to the CDC there are about 50 confirmed cases of Psittacosis each year in the USA, although they believe there may be many more cases that remain misdiagnosed or unreported. The disease is transmitted by pet birds such as parrots, parakeets, macaws, and cockatiels. Psittacosis can cause severe pneumonia and there have been several fatalities.(4)
  • In New England in 2005 three transplant patients died after receiving organs from a human donor who had been infected with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus by a pet hamster. (5)
  • Monkeypox – In 2003 there was an outbreak of Monkeypox in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin. Monkeypox is related to Smallpox and its symptoms include fever and the development of a papular rash. In all cases the people with the disease had been in contact with pet prairie dogs that had all come from the same source. (6)
  • Ringworm – Despite its name ringworm or Tinea is actually a fungal skin infection. One source of ringworm is known to be pet and wild hedgehogs. Over the past few months regular readers will know that this blog has been covering a story where three people were infected with ringworm by two hoglets bought from the same breeder.This story is all the more disturbing as the breeder in question somehow managed to circumvent the UK’s stringent quarantine laws and import several African Pygmy Hedgehogs directly into the country from Germany. She claims that the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) allowed her to “home quarantine” the hedgehogs. It later transpired that the German breeder’s herd was infected with ringworm. While at the breeder’s home this infection was spread from the “German” hedgehogs to the “parents” of the two hoglets that later infected their new owners and a family member. It should be noted that Defra state that “home quarantine” would not be allowed under any circumstances. (7)
  • Another recent CDC study lists an alarming number of confirmed and potential zoonotic diseases that pet and wild hedgehogs can carry. The confirmed diseases include Salmonella, Yersina, pseudotubercolosis, Mycobacterium marinum (also known as “Fish Tank Disease”), Herpesvirus including human herpes simplex and Rabies. The potential diseases include Yersina pestis (also responsible for Bubonic plague) and hemorrhagic fever. (8)

What can you do to reduce the risk of infection?

Many researchers in the field of infectious diseases actively discourage ownership of any kind of exotic pet. However, exotic pet ownership is a fact of life and millions of them share our homes all over the world. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have several web pages that provide some excellent advice about reducing the risk of infection and information about the diseases themselves: HEALTHYPETS.

If you do decide to purchase an exotic pet, buying it from a reputable breeder rather than a pet store or pet distributor, should provide you with more guarantees about the animal’s origins. While the risk of catching some terrible disease from your pet is relatively small, owners must be aware that the risk is real and does exist. If you follow the advice given on the CDC web site that risk is greatly reduced.

References:

  1. Ninove L, Domart Y, Vervel C, Voinot C, Salez N, Raoult D, et al. Cowpox virus transmission from pet rats to humans, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 May; [Epub ahead of print]
  2. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – May 6, 2005 / 54(17);429-433
  3. Journal of Clinical Microbiology Nov. 1997, p. 2786 – 2790 Human Salmonellosis Associated with Exotic Pets; David L Woodward, Rasik Khakhira & Wendy M Johnson National Laboratory for Enteric Pathogens, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.
  5. Margaret Ebrahim and John Solomon Associated Press Article – Nov. 27, 2006
  6. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report – Centers for Disease Control and PreventionJune 13, 2003 / 52(23);537-540
  7. Author’s blog
  8. Patricia Y. Riley and Bruno B. Chomel Emerging Infectious Diseases www.cdc.gov/eid Vol. 11, No. 1, January 2005
Be Sociable, Share!

written by

The author didn‘t add any Information to his profile yet.

14 Responses to "Pet Hedgehogs can Seriously Damage your Health"

  1. Kenzie says:

    So does that mean that hedgehogs you buy from the pet store can still make you very sick? i get sick easy and i dont want the swine flu,,… so should i still get a hegehog???

  2. Emma says:

    Not nessarly. I have rats and I did not get cowpox or anything. If at all possible though, try to find a breeder.

  3. samara says:

    I have a hedgehog, do they need shots or any thin glike that? I got her from a breeder.
    Thanx!

  4. Mr. Marquez says:

    Would a pet store such as PetSmart or PetCo be an acceptable place to buy exotic pets such as hedgehogs?

  5. Hojeong says:

    wow that might be scary

  6. Kitty says:

    I really want a hedgehog but I also own other animals such as a cat and a bird (cockatiel). I am worried if it would be ok to have one while having all of the other pets? Also the people that I live with have those as well as two dogs. Well the bird is different, but still. And where can I find a reliable place to get one?

  7. Angel says:

    You never want to buy a hedgehog from a Pet Store. Usually these come from backyard breeders or mills that are not careful about bloodlines. Inbred hedgehogs can develop Wobbly Hedgehog Syndrome (no I’m not making this up, google it) which is like MS in humans, this is a miserable way to watch a pet slowly die. Hedgehogs should be purchased from a reliable (preferably USDA licensed) breeder. To find a breeder near you check out hedgehogcentral.com. Make sure to research their needs before purchasing.

  8. hayle says:

    Wow no thank u
    !

  9. Debbe says:

    We have a pet hedgehog, and she’s a marvelous pet. WWWe have six kids and nine other different kinds of pets, and they all get along just fine. Our vet (who specializes in exotics) says they don’t need shots. Get a thorough checkup, though, when you bring one home. Be careful, though, because hedgehogs are illegal in some states/cities.

  10. Carmen says:

    I found a hedgehog in my back yard. It looks old, and is very sick or dying. I found out as much as I could, but nothing really that tell me how to help my new little friend. I have given him/her bread and milk. I was trying to feed it something soft. A apple was to much of a challenge for the poor little hedgehog. It is sleeping in a box with polo-flees blankets. I have kept him/her in the dark to the best of my ability. I am stuck as to what is the next step of action. As off yesterday the only thing I knew about hedgehogs was that they have a heart rate of 300 beats per minute. Is there anything else I can be doing for this little animal. Do bear in mind he/she is wild. I appreciate any advise that can help shed some light on what I need to be doing.

  11. Patricia says:

    Hedgehogs are lactose intolerant so feeding them milk is not a good idea but cottage cheese is apparently tolerated. They like apples sometimes and broccoli. They eat hedgehog food or if none is available, a low fat, higher protein and enough fiber kitten food. They like mealworms and crickets. They require fresh, cool water. They need heat so polar fleece blankets and warmth (above 23c is required)

  12. Stacie says:

    I have been doing a lot of research lately because I REALLY want a hedgehog but all this stuff about salmonella has really got me scared, I have read about all the outbreaks since 2011 and I don’t know what to do. I have a little boy and I plan on having another baby sooner then later but I don’t want to risk there health by getting a pet hedgehog! I have found a wonderful breeder and I was really excited but now I don’t know. How likely or what are the chances that if I would get a hedgie that it could give us a diasese like salomonella? It would just be my pet… My children probably wouldn’t bother with it. Advice would be greatly appreciated :)

  13. The risks of having hedgehogs as pets by Sun Meilan | Living Healthy 360 says:

    [...] is not the first time that hedgehogs have infected humans with Salmonella; one website reports that back in 1994, a ten-month old girl was diagnosed with another strain of Salmonella. [...]

  14. Hedgehogs Are Quickly Becoming the Most Popular Pets – Jezebel | Dothan Dog and Cat Grooming says:

    [...] a lowland gorilla. Orangutans also work, but they’re notoriously silly. Also, hedgehogs can give you ringworm, which is gross, and they only live for, like, five years, enough time for you to establish an [...]

Leave a Reply

Want to join the discussion?
Feel free to contribute!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

*

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>

© Copyright - Hedgehogs as Pets